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2011-08-19

イギリス暴動 貧困地域居住者が逮捕者の多数を占める@Guardian紙の分析

8/15の英首相所信表明で、キャメロン首相は次のように述べた。
PM's speech on the fightback after the riots

Monday 15 August 2011

Prime Minister David Cameron has delivered a speech in Oxfordshire on the fightback following the riots and looting last week.


These riots were not about race: the perpetrators and the victims were white, black and Asian.

These riots were not about government cuts: they were directed at high street stores, not Parliament.

And these riots were not about poverty: that insults the millions of people who, whatever the hardship, would never dream of making others suffer like this.

No, this was about behavior…

問題は、
 And these riots were not about poverty.
という部分だ。
この点について、18日付英Guardian紙は、データ解析を行って
 暴動と貧困は関係している
と報道した。
例によって、一部だけざっと訳したけど、間違いが多いのでごめんなさい。

England rioters: young, poor and unemployed (イギリス暴動:若年、貧困そして失業) Guardian data project reveals link between economic hardship and those taking part in last week's riots
(Guardianのデータプロジェクトが経済的困窮と先週の暴動の参加者の関連を明らかにする)

Matthew Taylor, Simon Rogers and Paul Lewis
Thursday 18 August 2011 21.28 BST

David Cameron said this week that the riots "were not about poverty", but the Guardian's database of court cases raises the question that there may be, at the very least, a correlation between economic hardship and those accused of taking part in last week's violence and looting.
(デヴィッド・キャメロンは、今週、暴動は「貧困とは関係してなかった」と言ったが、Guardianの判例データベースは、最低でも、経済的困窮と先週の暴力と掠奪に参加して起訴された人々の間には相互関係があるだろうという問題を提起している。)

Based on unprecedented access to information from magistrates courts across England, the Guardian's data project gives a new insight into the riots, shedding light on those accused of involvement, from their age and gender to the length of sentences being handed down.
(イギリス中の地方裁判所から得た新しい情報へのアクセスを元に、Guardianのデータプロジェクトは、彼らの年齢や性別から言い渡された判決の長さまで、関与による逮捕者を解明して、暴動について新たな見解を得ている。)

The data also highlights geographical differences during last week's unrest. In London, the evidence suggests rioters often looted shops and businesses in or near the areas where they lived. In cities such as Manchester and Birmingham, in contrast, the data appears to indicate that suspects travelled from their homes on the outskirts of the cities, or in some cases satellite towns, to riot and loot in the city centres.
(このデータは、先週の社会的動揺の期間の地理的な違いを目立たせている。ロンドンでは、暴徒たちはしばしば、自分たちが住んでいる地域の中や近辺の小売店や商店を掠奪したことを、証拠は示している。マンチェスターやバーミンガムといった都市では、対照的に、データが明らかにしているのは、容疑者たちは、都市の中心部で暴動を起こし、掠奪するために、都市郊外から、場合によってはベッドタウンにある自宅から遠出をしてきたことを示していることだ。)

One of the most striking features to emerge is the proportion of those who have appeared in court so far who come from deprived neighbourhoods.
(明らかになった、目だった特徴の一つは、これまでに法廷に現れた者のうち困窮した地域出身者の割合だ。)

A Liverpool University urban planning lecturer, Alex Singleton, analysed the Guardian's preliminary data by overlaying the addresses of defendants with the poverty indicators mapped by England's Indices of Multiple Deprivation, which breaks the country into small geographical areas.
(リバプール大学都市計画学講師のアレックス・シングルトンは、被告人たちの住所に、イギリス地域衰退指数によって地図に表された貧困指標を被せて、Guardianの予備的なデータを分析した。それらの貧困地域は、イギリスを小さな地理的な地域に分断している。)

He found that the majority of people who have appeared in court live in poor neighbourhoods, with 41% of suspects living in one of the top 10% of most deprived places in the country. The data also shows that 66% of neighbourhoods where the accused live got poorer between 2007 and 2010.
(法廷に現れた者の多くは貧困地域に居住し、その内41%の容疑者はイギリスの最貧困地区上位10%の中に住んでいた。このデータはまた、被告人の住んでいる66%の地域が、2007年から2010年の間により貧しくなった地域であることを示す。)

Singleton said: "Rioting is deplorable. However, if events such as this are to be mitigated in the future, the prevailing conditions and constraints affecting people living in areas must form part of the discussion. A 'broken society' happens somewhere, and geography matters."

The findings are backed up by research carried out by the Institute of Public Policy Research (IPPR) published this week. The thinktank looked at the relationship between different indicators of poverty and deprivation and the boroughs where violence and looting took place.

Researchers found that in almost all of the worst-affected areas, youth unemployment and child poverty were significantly higher than the national average while education attainment was significantly lower.

"Child poverty rates in local authorities where riots flared are stubbornly high," it stated. "While poverty is no excuse for criminality, it places additional pressure on families not only to make ends meet but also to spend time together … The political debate is likely to rage on for some time but there is also an urgent need to understand what is happening in communities where violence flared."

The Guardian's analysis is based on unprecedented access to court results granted by the Ministry of Justice. After a request from the Guardian it instructed all courts to provide full lists of results for all riot-related cases. These have been compiled by the individual courts and have never before been released on such a scale.

The lists give details of the inner workings of England's lower tier courts and record each defendant's name, age, address, charge, plea and sentence – as well as whether the case is remanded in jail or committed to the crown court for a jury trial.

The Guardian has been given detailed reports from 1,000 cases covering all the major courts dealing with riot-related offences: Westminster, Camberwell, Highbury and Croydon in London, plus Birmingham, Manchester and Liverpool. Reports from another 14 magistrates courts around England have also been collated by reporters.

Statistics from the MoJ show that 1,297 suspects had had an initial hearing at a magistrates court up to midday on 17 August. The majority of these hearings – 65% – were in London. The Metropolitan police reported that around half of the people who have appeared in court so far in London are under the age of 18. The MoJ says that in cases where the age of the defendant is known, 17% are under 18.

The Guardian database adds further detail to these statistics and appears to confirm that the accused are overwhelmingly young, male and often unemployed.

According to the data collected so far, 66% of those who have appeared in court are aged under 25 – with 17% aged between 11 and 17. Only a very small number in our data were aged over 30. More than 90% are male.
(集計された限りのデータに依れば、法廷に現れた者の66%が25歳以下で、さらに17%は11歳から17歳だった。このデータでは、30歳以上はごく僅かである。90%以上が男性だ。)

More than two-thirds of those in the Guardian's data set were remanded in prison, with 39% being passed to crown courts for trial or sentencing.
(Guadianのデータでは、2/3以上が収監され、39%は、審理もしくは判決のために、(上級審である)刑事法院へ進んだ)

Less than 10% of cases collated by the Guardian were given a sentence after their first appearance and there have only been a handful of cases where bail has been granted – mainly where the accused was under 18.
(Guardianが照合した10%未満の事件では、最初の出頭で判決が下り、わずかな事件、主に被告人が18歳未満の場合では、保釈が認められた。)

Of those who have been sent to prison the average length of sentence is four months and there have only been a few fines, mainly involving a group of 18-year-olds from Liverpool who were arrested by police for wearing face masks.
(平均刑期は4カ月でかつ極少額の罰金が科され、監獄に送られた者の内には、主に、顔にマスクを被っていたために警察に逮捕されたリバプール出身の18歳のグループが含まれている。)

The accused have been charged mainly with theft, handling stolen goods, burglary or violent disorder. No charge of riot – which is a separate offence – has yet been identified. The Guardian plans to continue refining the analysis as more data is collected.
(被告人は主に窃盗、盗品売買、強盗や破壊行為で告発された。別個な法律違反だが、暴動で告発された者は確認されていない。Guardianはさらにデータを集めて、分析をさらに精密にしていく計画である。)

元になったデータは、リンク先から辿れるようになっていて、ダウンロードも出来る。

しかし
 顔にマスクを被って暴動に参加しただけで禁錮4カ月
ですか。厳しいね。

キャメロン首相が
 貧困とは関係ない
と言っても、データは正直だ。

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